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An Overview to Audio Electronics

Audio electronics are basically the implementation of electronic circuit designs for converting sound wave signals or pressure wave signals into electrical signals and vice versa. Also, another method for creating audio signals is synthetically by generating electrical signals from electronic devices.

The main components of audio electronics are; sound, microphones, speakers, and amplifiers.


Sound can be defined as a type of energy, which vibrates through any medium like air or water. The vibrating range has a specific range of frequencies, which humans interpret as a; sound. Sound is made up of 3 elements;

Frequency- Speed of vibrations

The unit of frequency of sound is Hertz(Hz), which is defined as cycles per second.

The human ear can detect sound frequencies from 20 to 20000 Hz. But, frequencies ranging from 2000 to 5000 Hz are more sensitive to the human ear.

Intensity- How loud a sound can be?

The intensity of a sound can be defined as the amount of energy associated with the sound. The unit for measuring sound intensity is the decibel( dB).

Timbre- Quality of sound.

Timbre can be defined as the complex wave patterns that are seen when overtones are present along with the fundamental frequency.


The microphone is a component that has the property to convert changes in sound pressure to changes in electric current.

There are 3 types of microphones-




The Dynamic Microphones

These types of microphones consist of a plastic diaphragm, a voice coil, and a permanent magnet. These microphones are known for being rugged and to operate at a wide range of temperatures, also for providing smooth and extended frequency response.

The Condenser Microphones

The condenser microphones work by using a pair of charged plates that are brought closer together or can be forced apart by changes in air pressure. They are known for providing crisp, low noise sound and can produce high-quality sound recordings.

The Electret Microphones

These types of microphones provide high impedance and make sure that the charge on the electret element remains fixed. Older electret microphones deliver poor performance, but modern microphones compete with condenser microphones.


Speakers function the opposite of microphones. They convert electrical signals into audible sounds. Every speaker has some resistance or an impedance; that represents the average resistance between the speaker and the lead.

There are various frequency ranges of speakers, according to which they are classified as-

Woofers- for low range frequencies ( less than 200 Hz).

Mid-range- for frequencies ranging from 500 to 3000 Hz.

Tweeter- for frequencies more than those from midrange speakers.

Full-range speakers- for frequencies ranging from 100 to 15000 Hz.


An audio amplifier can be defined as an electronic amplifier that has the property of amplifying low power electronic audio signals to a level that is high enough for loudspeakers.

Amplifiers are of 3 types-

Preamplifier- it amplifies the very weak signal from a microphone into signals which are strong to manipulate.

Low power amplifier- they can manipulate signals which includes volume, and frequency equalization.

Power amplifier- it is used to increase the power signal to drive high load speakers.

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Last Update : Jan 17, 2022 11:28 AM
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